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It really depends on the complexity of the process. If you consider automobile manufacturing, any change to the design or to the software systems demands a lot of scrutiny, and will probably result in many potential failure modes and failure effects. So there’s no ideal – just an expected level based on the process.

Elisabeth Swan

Elisabeth is a Managing Partner at, the co-author of The Problem-Solver’s Toolkit and co-host of the Just-in-Time Cafe. For over 25 years, she's helped leading organizations like Amazon, Charles Schwab and Starwood Hotels & Resorts build problem-solving muscles with Lean Six Sigma to achieve their goals.