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Fractional Factorial is a form of Design of Experiments that enables operators to observe the changes occurring in the output (Y Response,) of a process while changing more than one input (X Factors) without running every single potential treatment combination. This test highlights shifts in the average response or output associated with multiple factors with less time and effort than required for a full factorial experiment.  It has a diminished ability to evaluate how factors in a process might interact.

An example would be to test the cycle time (Y) to cook a pizza in different ovens (X1), at different temperatures (X2), and with different toppings (X3) without running every single combination of the three factors.

For a better understanding of DOE – Fractional Factorial, check out our Black Belt Training & Certification Course!

Elisabeth Swan

Elisabeth is a Managing Partner at For over 25 years, she's helped leading organizations like Amazon, Charles Schwab and Starwood Hotels & Resorts build problem-solving muscles with Lean Six Sigma to achieve their goals.

Tracy O'Rourke

Tracy is a Managing Partner at She is also a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Instructor at UC San Diego and teaches in San Diego State University’s Lean Enterprise Program. For almost 20 years, she has helped leading organizations like Washington State, Charles Schwab and GE build problem-solving muscles.